X120Mn12, 1.3401, A128 - Hadfield steel resistant to abrasion, high-wear abrasive austenitic according to BN-68/0631-04 and BN-90/0631-04.
Attention! Do not confuse high-hardened steel with structural steels with increased abrasion resistance, such as HARDOX®, HTK®, MILLUX®, RAEX®, BRINAR® or DUROSTAT®.
|Chemical Composition %|
|BN||11G12 - 110G12 - 11 G 12 - 110 G 12|
|1.05 - 1.25||11.5 - 14.0||0.4 - 0.7||<0.10||<0.03||-||-||-||-|
|DIN||X120Mn12 - X 120 Mn 12 - 1.3401 - 3401 - 120 Mn 12 - HADFIELD|
|1.1 - 1.3||12.0 - 13.0||0.3 - 0.5||<0.1||<0.04||<1.5||-||<1.0||-|
|DIN||X110Mn14 - X 110 Mn 14 - 1.3402 - 3402|
|1.00 - 1.25||13.5 - 14.5||0.35 - 0.70||<0.08||<0.02||-||-||-||-|
|GOST||G13 - Г13 - 120G13 - 120Г13 - El256 - ЭЛ256|
|1.0 - 1.4||11.0 - 14.0||<0.7||<0.1||<0.03||<0.5||-||<0.6||<0.3|
|NF||Z120M12 - Z 120 M 12 - GD 233|
|1.05 - 1.35||11.0 - 14.0||0.2 - 0.6||<0.045||<0.035||-||-||-||-|
|BS||BW 10 - BW10 - Ma2 - Ma3 - Ma5 - MaZ|
|1.00 - 1.35||>11.0||<1.0||<0.05||<0.05||-||-||-||-|
|EN||GX100Mn13 - 1.3406 - 3406|
|0.90 - 1.05||11.0 - 14.0||0.3 - 0.9||<0.06||<0.045||-||-||-||-|
|EN||GX120Mn13 - 1.3802 - 3802|
|1.05 - 1.35||11.0 - 14.0||0.3 - 0.9||<0.06||<0.045||-||-||-||-|
|1.05 - 1.35||>11.00||<1.00||<0.07||-||-||-||-||-|
Hadfield's austenitic high-manganese steel X120Mn12, 1.3401
X120Mn12 and 11G12 are high-manganese steels with austenitic structure, characterized by high carbon content - on average 1.00-1.20%, and high Manganese content - approx. 12%. The ranges of concentration of carbon and manganese depend on the equivalents of the grades of different origin. The abrasion-resistant steel grades may differ from the standard, which are also included in the presented table.
Surface hardening during grinding and crumbling, good ductility, impact resistance and the ability to withstand dynamic loads are the basic criterion for the selection and use of steel. The second essential property is that high-manganese steel, after appropriate heat treatment, is a non-magnetic steel. The third and probably the last is the high hardness of the material in the supersaturated state - about 500 HBW.
Hadfield abrasion resistant steel strengthens during operation, it is used for elements of equipment and machines that are exposed to abrasion at dynamic and high surface pressures. Unfortunately, it is characterized by very difficult machinability and has low resistance to variable loads.
Even the smallest small cracks lead to the formation of fatigue and to the destruction of structural parts during the operation of machinery and equipment.
X120Mn12, 1.3401 - purpose
- steel baskets and buckets of excavators
- steel for jaws for stone breakers
- steel for prison bars and safes
- steel for covers and construction parts of electromagnets
- steel for molds for pressing briquettes
- steel on tracks, pins, shafts and bushings of track chains
- steel for baskets of excavators and tractors
- steel for turnouts and railway and tram crossing
- steel and cast steel for ball mills
- steel for walls of storage bunkers served by electromagnets in the form of sheets
- wear-resistant steel for wire sieves
- steel for conveyors and pipelines for the pneumatic transport of crushed and ground materials
The mechanical properties of X120Mn12, 1.3401
The manganese wear-resistant steel exhibits its properties only in the supersaturated state with austenitic structure.
|Mechanical and physical properties of 11G12 / X120Mn12|
|Tensile strength, Rm||80 - 110 kG/mm2|
|The yield point Re||35 - 45 kG/mm2|
|Elongation A5||≥ 40%|
|Contraction Z||40 - 55%|
|Hardness HB||190 - 250 kG/mm2|
|Density, ρ||7,71 kg/dm3|
By cold hardening 11G12 steel in the supersaturated condition by rolling, drawing, hammering or shot peening, the Rm strength can be raised up to around 160 kg/mm2, and Brinnell hardness up to 450-550 kg / mm2. As a result of hardening, strength and hardness also assumes the working surface of machine construction parts during operation, after which it can be concluded that high abrasion resistance is the result of strong surface hardening of steel 11G12 and X120Mn12.
Heat treatment and structure of X120Mn12
To give the characteristic properties to Hadfield steel, the product is subjected to supersaturation at a temperature of 950-1000 ℃ and cooled in water, which gives us austenitic material structure. After this treatment, the steel is difficult to process. By slowly cooling the steel in air from the temperature of about 950 ℃ to room temperature, a mixture of ferrite and manganese cementite appears in the structure.
When cooling steel in water from the pre-heating temperature of approx. 500 ℃, carbides (Fe, Mn) 3C are formed from austenite, with a perliteic transformation leading to a martensitic structure. This steel structure is much more workable compared to the supersaturated state.
In a cast, improperly tempered or supersaturated state, or badly welded, the steel shows increased brittleness and much weaker technological and strength properties, which is associated with a decrease in abrasion resistance.
These changes are caused by the separation of carbides along grain boundaries and the breakdown of austenite into structural components (perlite + martensite). In order to restore the previous similar properties to the steel, it should be heated to the supersaturation temperature, and quickly cooled in water (with smaller details in oil), which will return the previous ductility and abrasion resistance to the material.
How to machine, weld and cut hadfield wear-resistant steel? Click here
In the grade of X120Mn12, 1.3401, the company offers:
- round bars, square and flat hot-rolled bars
- forged bars and forgings
- Abrasion/Wear resistant hot-rolled Hadfield sheets and plates
- Abrasion/Wear resistant high-manganese bushes
- high-manganese abrasion-resistant casts
The list of equivalents and other designations of X120Mn12:
110G12, 11 G 12, 110 G 12, X120Mn12, X 120 Mn 12, 1.3401, 3401, 120 Mn 12, HADFIELD, X110Mn14, X 110 Mn 14, 1.3402, 3402, L120G13, 110G13L, 110Г13Л, G13, Г13, 120G13. 120Г13. El256. ЭЛ256, X120Mn13. X 120 Mn 13. AoX 120 Mn 13, Z120M12. Z 120 M 12, GD 233, ČSN 17 618, 17618, ČSN 417618, NS 1699, NS1699, BW 10, BW10, Ma2, Ma3, Ma5, MaZ, GX100Mn13, 1.3406, 3406, GX120Mn13, 1.3802, 3802, GX120Mn18, 1.3407, 3407, GX120MnCr13-2, 1.3410, 3410, GX120Mn12, G X 120 Mn 12, ASTM A128 Grade A, B2, B3, B4, C