Tool steels for hot work

 

Hot work grades
X37CrMoV5-1 - 1.2343 - AISI H11
X40CrMoV5-1 - 1.2344 - AISI H13
X38CrMoV5-3 - 1.2367 - Z38CDV5-3
56NiCrMoV7 - 55NiCrMoV7 - 1.2714 - 1.2713
X22CrNi17 - X23CrNi17 - 1.2787
X45MoCrV5-3-1 - 1.2999
X32CrMoCoV3-3-3 - 1.2885
X30WCrV9-3 - Z30WCV9 - 1.2581 - AISI H21
X32CrMoV12-28 - 1.2365 - AISI H10

 

Tool steel for hot work - Application and characteristics

Hot work tool steels have a working temperature range of 250-700 ℃. They are used as steel for hot cutting knives, steel for press extrusion molds, forging presses, steel for molds for pressurized molds, molds for the production and processing of metals in solid and liquid form.

Tool steel products are resistant to corrosion, have good toughness, fire crack resistance, heat resistance, very high strength, hardness, and abrasion resistance at high temperatures.

Chemical composition and alloy additives

The range of carbon relative to other tool steels is much lower, within the range of 0.30-0.60%, due to the need to preserve impact strength and material durability, which is supported by Nickel in some grades (eg. WNLV). The most commonly encountered tool steels are Cr-Mo-V, Cr-W-V, Cr-Mo-W-V, Cr-Mo-Co, and Ni-Cr-Mo-V.

Heat treatment of tool steels for hot work

It is necessary to preheat the component to a suitable temperature of 200-250 ℃ in order to preserve the life of the tool steels for hot work, and to properly cool these steels after work.

For the tool life is also responsible proper heat treatment of the product, which is delivered in a softened state. The working temperature of the product should not exceed the tempering temperature. Each of the products is exposed to cracks at work, which over time grows, so it is necessary to replace the components at regular intervals.

Heat treatment of tool steels for hot work consists of multi-stage heating of the product to the austenitization temperature depending on the grade - 850-1150 ℃. The temperature of this compartment must be chosen so that there is no grain growth in the product, which may reduce the ductility of the core of the element.

For smaller sections, hardening is carried out in oil. For larger components, hardening is carried out by spraying water mist, compressed air or with an isothermal stop. The tempering temperature is 500-600 ℃, where the treatment is repeated twice. During tempering, depending on the alloy additives in the grade, M₂C, M₄C₇, M₇C alloy carbides are responsible for the secondary hardness.


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