Austenitic acid-resistant and stainless steels

 

Grades:
1.4301 - X5CrNi18-10 - 0H18N9 - AISI 304
1.4305 - X8CrNiS18-9 - AISI 303
1.4306 - X2CrNi19-11 - 00H18N10 - AISI 304L
1.4307 - X2CrNi18-9 - AISI 304L
1.4948 - X6CrNi18-10 - AISI 304H
1.4310 - X10CrNi18-8 - 1H18N9 - AISI 301 - AISI 302
1.4303 - X4CrNi18-12 - AISI 305
1.4541 - X6CrNiTi18-10 - AISI 321
1.4401 - X5CrNiMo17-12-2 - AISI 316
1.4404 - X2CrNiMo17-12-2 - AISI 316L
1.4439 - X2CrNiMoN17-13-5 - AISI 317LMN
1.4438 - X2CrNiMo18-15-4 - AISI 317L
1.4429 - X2CrNiMoN17-13-3 - AISI 316LN
1.4436 - X3CrNiMo17-13-3 - AISI 316L
1.4435 - X2CrNiMo18-14-3 - AISI 316L
1.4432 - X2CrNiMo17-12-3 - AISI 316L
1.4571 - X6CrNiMoTi17-12-2 - UNS S31635 - AISI 316Ti
1.4466 - X1CrNiMoN25-22-2 - AISI 310MoLN - UNS S31050
1.4550 - X6CrNiNb18-10 - AISI 347
1.4580 - X6CrNiMoNb17-12-2 - AISI 316Cb
1.4570 - X6CrNiCuS18-9-2 - AISI 303Cu
1.4539 - X1NiCrMoCu25-20-5 - 0H22N24M4TCu - AISI 904L
1.4547 - X1CrNiMoCuN20-18-7 - S31254 - 254SMO
1.4529 - X1NiCrMoCuN25-20-7 - 6 Mo - UNS N08926 - Alloy 926
1.4558 - X2NiCrAlTi32-20 - Alloy 800
1.4563 - X1NiCrMoCu31-27-4 - N08028
1.4567 - X3CrNiCu18-9-4 - AISI 304Cu
Nitronic 50 - UNS S20910 - XM-19
Nitronic 60 - Alloy 218 - UNS S21800

 

Acid-resistant stainless steel - chemical composition

Austenitic steels, apart from Chromium, also contain nickel, which forms a pair of elements that make the steel resistant to various types of acids at different concentrations and temperatures. The most known acid-resistant steel is 18/8 or 18-8 steel, with an average of 18% Chrome and 8% Nickel. They contain 17-25% of Chromium, 8-30% of Nickel, and 0-7% of Molybdenum.

Austenitic stainless steel - properties and structure

Austenitic stainless steels are characterized by better mechanical properties up to 190 ℃, higher corrosion resistance and less tendency to grain growth than ferritic steels. They are also soft and plastic - making them suitable for stamping, bending, forming, welding and polishing (especially Ti-free grades).

At room temperature to melting point, the austenitic stainless steels are single-phase, so that they are not able to increase their tensile strength, yield strength and hardness after heat treatment.

They are in a supersaturated state, resulting in homogeneous austenite and corrosion resistance. In the chemical composition, the carbon is maintained at a negligible level, typically in the range of 0.02-0.15%, so that the products of this group of steel are not suitable for structural work, comparing to martensitic steels.

Resistance to intercrystalline corrosion

The other side of the coin is to maintain high resistance to difficult environments in which these are constantly being used, and carbon could lead to corrosion. Austenitic steels retain low sensitivity to intercrystalline corrosion, so that after welding there is no need for additional thermal treatments and, in addition they are non-magnetic steels.

Studies and tests of intercrystalline corrosion are specified by PN-58/H-04630 standard. They are used as steel reststant to chlorides, sulfur containing gases, wet-chlorine resistant, bromine and iodine, and molten aluminum resistant, zinc and antimony-resistant steel.


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